Collective Teacher Efficacy

I want you take a moment and think about all the students in your class.  If you need to go in and have a look at the class dashboard at https://oslp.eq.edu.au/OSLP.MVC/Dashboard in OneSchool.

Do you believe that you can make a difference to all those children, overcome their challenges and impact positively on their achievement.  Be honest…are you concerned that external factors, e.g. disability diagnosis, time constraints, parent support or student attitude, will prevent some children from ever achieving.  It is human nature to perceive or attribute various causes when considering factors that contribute to their success and/or failure.  What we want to do is promote (and that is not really the word I am looking for) teacher efficacy.  The belief that you can make a difference.

When teachers attribute students’ successes and failures to internal factors rather than external factors, they in turn, believe their actions impact student achievement.

The next step is collective teacher efficacy:

Amazing things happen when a school staff shares the belief that they are able to achieve collective goals and overcome challenges to impact student achievement.

It is a bit difficult to develop a PD program that suddenly develops collective teacher efficacy.  It is not as simple as here is a recipe go and do it.  We are investigating the IMPACT teams as a way we can work together to look at student work and share strategies for success.

The Research

Why are we doing it?

 

STEAM – Project based learning

Students work on a project over an extended period of time – from a week up to a semester – that engages them in solving a real-world problem or answering a complex question. They demonstrate their knowledge and skills by developing a public product or presentation for a real audience.

As a result, students develop deep content knowledge as well as critical thinking, creativity, and communication skills in the context of doing an authentic, meaningful project. Project Based Learning unleashes a contagious, creative energy among students and teachers.

Resources:

https://globaldigitalcitizen.org/36-stem-project-based-learning-activities

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/sept10/vol68/num01/Seven_Essentials_for_Project-Based_Learning.aspx

STEAM Made Simple – Primary

Bright Sparks – Using Design Thinking to Solve Problems – Years 5 & 6

 

 

The Future of Schooling

We do lots of planning around the “what” we are going to teach and even the “why” with respect to improving the impact on student learning.  One area that we have yet to address is with respect to the future needs of children.  The impact may not be felt the greatest in primary schools but we need to at least consider the impact at our level.  Lots of Gonski conversation lately and a common theme centres around personalised learning.  I wanted to share a couple of videos about some work in parts of the world to at least get you thinking.  Often when you look at videos on future school you often just seem the same old industrial age model but with lots of new toys.  I think the challenge will be what the work in classes will look like.  I know a few of you dabble with some websites like readingtheory.org that offer a personalised pathway to reading comprehension.  Have a look at some of the AltSchool work from the States to see this in action for these schools.  Teams of educators and software engineers working together to develop personalised curriculum.

http://www.lobethalps.sa.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/All4One_Complete_March13_V2_web.pdf

How can we make this plan work for us to move towards the future:

https://payneroadss.eq.edu.au/Supportandresources/Formsanddocuments/Documents/MasterPlan_AVision.pdf

Leading Impact Teams

Teacher teams are a school’s greatest resource…

Excellent teams make excellent schools!

Leading Impact Teams taps into the scheduled team planning time every school already has, and re-purposes it in a model that provides the processes needed to build teacher expertise and increase student learning.

The model combines two existing practices, formative assessment and collaborative inquiry, and promotes a school culture in which teachers and students are partners in learning.

Teams will learn how to:

  • Build a culture of efficacy

  • Take collective action using high yield strategies

  • Maximize peer and self-assessment strategies

  • Clarify learning goals and success criteria

  • Leverage progressions

  • Utilize evidence-based feedback

A problem of practice…

Amazing things happen when a school staff shares the belief that they are able to achieve collective goals and overcome challenges to impact student achievement.

I shared this quote about the merits of collaborative teacher efficacy on our student free day as a definition of this term and also to share what I believe is the way forward when we look to impact successfully on student learning.

And here lies the problem…do we all recognise what the challenge is?

Are we prepared to face the challenge?  Are we prepared to change what we do? Work differently?  Work together?  And rely on ourselves for the answer?

I think we would all agree that we face a range of challenges in schools and in society (that often get forced on schools to fix)…Like you (I hope) I

So let me throw this problem of practice out there…

This is not an exhaustive list of influencing factors…I could go on…the system…the curriculum…funding/resources…leadership…etc etc

I developed PLCs (Professional Learning Communities) to address pressing needs at Payne Road but I also developed them because the answers can’t always come from me or from a policy maker somewhere or from some external team.  We are our best resource…we have an opportunity to think outside the box, work differently and look beyond tradition and the way we have always worked.  I don’t exaggerate when I state that our profession is at risk of becoming obsolete and I have seen our respect in society diminish over the course of my career.

I don’t have the answers…but I challenge you all to try.

I wanted to share an article with you:

Teachers Teaching Teachers: A Sustainable and Inexpensive Professional Development Program to Improve Instruction

Abstract

School districts face tremendous budget challenges and, as a result, professional development has been “trimmed” from many school budgets. (Habegger & Hodanbosi, 2011). School administrators responsible for planning professional development face a daunting task and often focus on PowerPoints, district mandated training, one-shot presentations, and workshops that are delivered by expensive experts. These types of activities lack teacher collaboration, time for sharing of ideas and opportunity for reflection and analysis (Torff & Byrnes, 2011, Coggins, Zuckerman & Mckelvey, 2010).

Now it is a dissertation…and long…and I am not expecting you to read it all…some of it my touch a chord with you…perhaps start with the preface.

I want you to consider this challenge or problem of practice when you are working in PLCs this year.  There will be no one magic wand but a collective approach and the willingness to take risks will begin to address some of our concerns.

Think also about what you already have access to…our technology has evolved and we have access to a range of resources.  And some of these have been with us for a while…we need to explore how we can use some of these differently…I can tell you from personal experience…trial and error has been a far better teacher than any professional development that I have ever attended.

STEM and creativity

A couple of us signed up for the online course for STEM so we will have access to resources.

Blue The Film: Inquiry – Years 1 & 2

Our Vision

Be the leader in real world learning.

 

Our Mission

Upskill educators to become designers of exceptional learning for all young Australians.

Our Values

  • We value REAL WORLD LEARNING because education should embrace every opportunity to be authentic. Real world learning helps young people connect and contribute to an ever-changing world.
  • We value EMPATHY because education should assist us to consider how our decisions impact on other people, our planet and our future. Empathy supports young people to build self-awareness and compassion through the understanding of different perspectives.
  • We value CURIOSITY because education should drive the impulse to learn. Curiosity stimulates our interest and our desire to actively seek answers. Curiosity makes learning meaningful and opens up new possibilities.
  • We value CREATIVITY because education should provide opportunities for young people to use their hands, minds and hearts. Creativity supports young people to become problem finders and solvers, innovators, entrepreneurs and leaders. Creativity allows us to design the future and imagine ways to combine old with new.
  • We value COLLABORATION because we often learn better, and achieve more, when working together. Collaboration helps young people develop interpersonal and communication skills, while fostering a sense of belonging and self-worth. Collaboration builds shared responsibility and teamwork skills within diverse groups.
  •  We value the LOVE OF LEARNING because education should bring joy, connection, fulfillment, fun, satisfaction and a wow factor. The love of learning is the driver behind purposeful and lifelong learning.

 

What We Do

We create units of work and learning activities that can be downloaded from the Cool Australia website and taken straight into the classroom. The learning activities are year level specific, from Early Learning to Year 12. All are linked to Australian Curriculum standards and the Early Years Learning Framework outcomes.

We provide an online Digital Library to support learning and teaching. It contains videos, images, infographics, research and news articles.

We deliver online professional development to help educators build their confidence and skills. Sometimes we also provide keynote addresses at conferences across the country.

We coordinate Enviroweek – a year of action, a week of celebration.

 

 

 

Why Students Forget—and What You Can Do About It

Our brains are wired to forget, but there are research-backed strategies you can use to make your teaching stick.

Teachers have long known that rote memorization can lead to a superficial grasp of material that is quickly forgotten. But new research in the field of neuroscience is starting to shed light on the ways that brains are wired to forget—highlighting the importance of strategies to retain knowledge and make learning stick.

In a recent article published in the journal Neuron, neurobiologists Blake Richards and Paul Frankland challenge the predominant view of memory, which holds that forgetting is a process of loss—the gradual washing away of critical information despite our best efforts to retain it. According to Richards and Frankland, the goal of memory is not just to store information accurately but to “optimize decision-making” in chaotic, quickly changing environments. In this model of cognition, forgetting is an evolutionary strategy, a purposeful process that runs in the background of memory, evaluating and discarding information that doesn’t promote the survival of the species.

“From this perspective, forgetting is not necessarily a failure of memory,” explain Richards and Frankland in the study. “Rather, it may represent an investment in a more optimal mnemonic strategy.”

The Forgetting Curve

We often think of memories as books in a library, filed away and accessed when needed. But they’re actually more like spiderwebs, strands of recollection distributed across millions of connected neurons. When we learn something new—when a teacher delivers a fresh lesson to a student, for example—the material is encoded across these neural networks, converting the experience into a memory.

Forgetting is almost immediately the nemesis of memory, as psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus discovered in the 1880s. Ebbinghaus pioneered landmark research in the field of retention and learning, observing what he called the forgetting curve, a measure of how much we forget over time. In his experiments, he discovered that without any reinforcement or connections to prior knowledge, information is quickly forgotten—roughly 56 percent in one hour, 66 percent after a day, and 75 percent after six days.

So what can be done to preserve the hard work of teaching? After all, evolutionary imperatives—which prune our memories of extraneous information—don’t always neatly align with the requirements of curriculum or the demands of the Information Age. Learning the times tables doesn’t avail when running from lions, in other words, but in the modern world that knowledge has more than proved its mettle.

The Persistence of Memory

The same neural circuitry appears to be involved in forgetting and remembering. If that is properly understood, students and teachers can adopt strategies to reduce memory leaks and reinforce learning.

MIT neuroscientists, led by Richard Cho, explain the mechanisms for synaptic strengthening in a 2015 article, also published in Neuron. When neurons are frequently fired, synaptic connections are strengthened; the opposite is true for neurons that are rarely fired. Known as synaptic plasticity, this explains why some memories persist while others fade away. Repeatedly accessing a stored but fading memory—like a rule of geometry or a crucial historical fact—rekindles the neural network that contains the memory and encodes it more deeply.

Researchers have also learned that not all new memories are created equal. For example, here are two sets of letters to remember:

  1. NPFXOSK
  2. ORANGES

For readers of English, the second set of letters is more memorable—the more connections neurons have to other neurons, the stronger the memory. The seven letters in NPFXOSK appear random and disjointed, while ORANGES benefits from its existing, deeply encoded linguistic context. The word oranges also invokes sensory memory, from the image of an orange to its smell, and perhaps even conjures other memories of oranges in your kitchen or growing on a tree. You remember by layering new memories on the crumbling foundations of older ones.

5 Teacher Strategies

When students learn a new piece of information, they make new synaptic connections. Two scientifically based ways to help them retain learning is by making as many connections as possible—typically to other concepts, thus widening the “spiderweb” of neural connections—but also by accessing the memory repeatedly over time.

Which explains why the following learning strategies, all tied to research conducted within the past five years, are so effective:

  1. Peer-to-peer explanations: When students explain what they’ve learned to peers, fading memories are reactivated, strengthened, and consolidated. This strategy not only increases retention but also encourages active learning (Sekeres et al., 2016).
  2. The spacing effect: Instead of covering a topic and then moving on, revisit key ideas throughout the school year. Research shows that students perform better academically when given multiple opportunities to review learned material. For example, teachers can quickly incorporate a brief review of what was covered several weeks earlier into ongoing lessons, or use homework to re-expose students to previous concepts (Carpenter et al., 2012; Kang, 2016).
  3. Frequent practice tests: Akin to regularly reviewing material, giving frequent practice tests can boost long-term retention and, as a bonus, help protect against stress, which often impairs memory performance. Practice tests can be low stakes and ungraded, such as a quick pop quiz at the start of a lesson or a trivia quiz on Kahoot, a popular online game-based learning platform. Breaking down one large high-stakes test into smaller tests over several months is an effective approach (Adesope, Trevisan, & Sundararajan, 2017; Butler, 2010; Karpicke, 2016).
  4. Interleave concepts: Instead of grouping similar problems together, mix them up. Solving problems involves identifying the correct strategy to use and then executing the strategy. When similar problems are grouped together, students don’t have to think about what strategies to use—they automatically apply the same solution over and over. Interleaving forces students to think on their feet, and encodes learning more deeply (Rohrer, 2012; Rohrer, Dedrick, & Stershic, 2015).
  5. Combine text with images: It’s often easier to remember information that’s been presented in different ways, especially if visual aids can help organize information. For example, pairing a list of countries occupied by German forces during World War II with a map of German military expansion can reinforce that lesson. It’s easier to remember what’s been read and seen, instead of either one alone (Carney & Levin, 2002; Bui & McDaniel, 2015).

So even though forgetting starts as soon as learning happens—as Ebbinghaus’s experiments demonstrate—research shows that there are simple and effective strategies to help make learning stick.

Autism CRC and other resources

This project investigated whether participation in a group cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) anxiety program assists children on the autism spectrum to function better at school, including their anxiety, mood, social skills, and academic outcomes.

https://www.autismcrc.com.au/reports/improving-school-functioning-reducing-anxiety-children-spectrum

http://teaching.monster.com/benefits/articles/8761-22-tips-for-teaching-students-with-autism-spectrum-disorders

https://www.iidc.indiana.edu/pages/Teaching-Tips-for-Children-and-Adults-with-Autism

Educational resources